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1. Crime Prevention in the context of development in Nepal
2. A note on crime scene investigation
3. Interview & Interrogation in the investigation of crime
4. Crime Control: a short note
5. Resources for policing
Overview of Nepal
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CRIME CONTROL: A SHORT NOTE
Crime has become as complex as human nature. Modern technological advancement and tremendous progress in communication have facilitated criminals of every corner of the world to commit a crime using sophisticated equipment in one pace and then escape to another place. The present day world faces the grim problem of illicit drug trafficking, smuggling, hijacking, kidnapping, terrorism. In spite of vigorous and vehement national and international efforts towards combating such crime, it is quite disappointing to note that the crimes are rapidly growing in various forms. Crime
has adversely affected the societies of both developed as well as developing countries by impairing the quality of life, threatening human rights and fundamental freedom and posing a serious challenge to the community. No country has remained unaffected, although the level and intensity of the problem might vary nation to nation.
An act or omission of an act which is punishable by law is a crime. A crime in one place and in one time may not be in another place or time. Intent and opportunity are two major factors that lead to the occurrence of a crime . An individual cannot commit a crime unless and otherwise he gets an opportunity even if he has an intention to commit one. So the real strategy for crime control is to provide no opportunity for a criminal to commit a crime either through tradition or community policing.
PREVENTION IS BETTER THAN CURE
- Prevention saves the life and property of the people whom the police are in duty to protect.
- Avoid a good deal of trouble to the victim both physical and mental.
- Rules out litigation which follows in the wake of detection of a crime.
- Prevention also saves the police from the trouble of recording First Information Report at all odd hours of the day and night and of taking immediate action for the investigation.
- Traditional Policing
- Community Policing
- Traditional Policing :
BEAT PATROL:- a beat is a given route or an area to be covered and patrol is the duty performed on a beat.
FACTORS DETERMINING PATROL DEPLOYMENT
- The area of beat to be covered.
- Amount and types of crimes.
- Locations of crimes.
- Populated residential area versus industrial center.
- Socio-economic factors.
- Relative locations of business,industrial and residential areas.
- Geography and topography.
- Nature of streets and highways.
- Residence of criminals in the area.
- Homogeneity of the ethnic and cultural background of the residents.
- Any special feature rendering the locality more prone to the criminals.
- Maximum number of police available.
METHODS OF BEAT PATROL
- Clockwise & anti-clockwise (Gordon system)
- Intensive patrol
- Permanent patrol
- Fixed post system (Swain system)
- Block patrol
CONTROL AND SUPERVISION
- Inspection and instruction
- Careful scrutiny of the report.
- Checking on beat.
- Planning according the recent crime situation.
- Checking patrol records.
- Beat card with directions as to the hour of work, route and information to be collected.
- Maintaining Crime Map.
DISTRIBUTION OF PATROL FORCE
- Functional distribution :- According to workload.
- Chronological distribution :- 10 to 6; 6 to 2; 2 to 10 (hours of work in a shift system)
- Geographical distribution :-(a) decentralizes total problems into small unit (b)equal distribution of workload (c)response time is minimized.
SPECIAL OPERATION (TASK FORCE)
Tactical Unit for emergencies :-
- Man Made:- (a) Criminal emergencies (b)Vice emergencies (c)Riot emergencies (d)Mob situation (e)Disorderly crowd (f)Industrial disorder (g)Prison break out
- Natural:-(a)Earthquake (b)Flood (c) Fire (d) others
Efforts to be made to control crime
- Planning the coordination among district police offices.
- Briefing the situation from time to time.
- Organizing meetings with the border police counterpart
- Through projecting crime situation of yesterday and today into tomorrow prediction can be made concerning how much, when and where is going to happen.
- Determining the nature, extent and distribution of police problem of crime
- Apprehending criminal offenders through the study of modus operandi.
- Control over crimes committed and their investigation.
- Selecting the best man for particular assignment.
- Determining the amount, nature and distribution of police equipment.
- Public Understanding- Informing citizen
- Public Confidence- Building citizen trust
- Public Support- Compliance with law and assistance in investigation
2. Community Policing Method
ONE WAY COMMUNICATION PROGRAM
- Police Community Relation:- (a) to encourage police-citizen partnership in the cause of crime prevention. (b) to improve communication between police and community
TWO WAY COMMUNICATION PROGRAM
- Neighborhood Crime Prevention (US, KOBAN in Japan, Singapore)
- To increase citizens awareness of crime problems.
- Coordinated neighborhood approach utilizing specific crime prevention.
- To encourage prompt reporting of crime or suspicious activities.
- Joint crime prevention effort aimed at more effective use of police resources and services consist of:-.
(a) Property marking (b) advising residents of security shortcomings (c) Encouraging Surveillance (d) Extensive publicity of these efforts
- WORKING INCOGNITO
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